Communicable Disease and Infectious Disease.
According to the World Health Orgnization, an emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (WHO). Outbreaks are the occurrence of disease cases in excess of what would normally be expected for a community, geographical area or season (WHO). Examples of recent outbreaks affecting public health in United States include Group A Streptococcus, Pertussis, Zika, Mumps, and Measles.
Read chapter 25 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentation. Once done answer the following questions;
- Discuss the principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases.
- Describe the three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 and the objectives that apply to communicable and infectious diseases.
- Identify and discuss nursing activities for the control of infectious diseases at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention.
- Identify and discuss a communicable and/or infectious disease that it was believed to be eradicated and have reemerged now. For example; measles.
Expert Solution Preview
In the field of medicine, understanding the principles of communicable and infectious diseases is essential for healthcare professionals. This knowledge helps them prevent the occurrence and transmission of diseases, as well as develop effective control and prevention strategies. In this assignment, we will explore the principles of communicable and infectious diseases, the goals outlined in Healthy People 2020 for addressing these diseases, nursing activities at various levels of prevention, and the reemergence of eradicated diseases.
1. Principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases:
The occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases are influenced by various factors. Some key principles include:
– Pathogen: Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. The pathogen’s ability to infect and replicate within a host contributes to disease occurrence.
– Reservoir: These are the sources where pathogens reside and multiply, such as humans, animals, insects, or the environment. Reservoirs play a crucial role in disease transmission.
– Portal of Exit: Pathogens leave the reservoir through specific routes, such as respiratory secretions, bodily fluids, or skin lesions. These portals of exit enable the pathogens to spread to new hosts.
– Mode of Transmission: Pathogens can be transmitted through direct contact (physical touching), indirect contact (contaminated objects), droplet transmission (respiratory droplets), airborne transmission (inhaled particles), vector-borne transmission (through parasites or insects), or vertical transmission (from mother to fetus).
– Portal of Entry: Pathogens enter a new host through specific routes, such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or breaks in the skin. The portal of entry determines the primary site of infection.
– Susceptible Host: A susceptible individual lacks immunity or has lowered resistance to a particular pathogen. Host factors, including age, underlying diseases, immune status, and genetic predisposition, influence the susceptibility to infectious diseases.
2. Three focus areas and objectives in Healthy People 2020 regarding communicable and infectious diseases:
Healthy People 2020 aims to improve the nation’s health by addressing specific health goals. Three focus areas related to communicable and infectious diseases are:
– Immunization and Infectious Diseases: The objective is to increase immunization rates, prevent outbreaks, and control infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, and hepatitis.
– Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs): The goal is to prevent HAIs by implementing evidence-based practices, reducing infection rates, and improving patient safety.
– Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): The objective is to reduce STI rates, enhance screening and treatment, increase awareness, and promote safer sexual behaviors.
3. Nursing activities for the control of infectious diseases at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention:
– Primary Prevention: At this level, nursing activities focus on preventing the occurrence of infectious diseases. Examples include health education, promoting vaccination programs, advocating for proper hand hygiene, and implementing infection control measures in healthcare settings.
– Secondary Prevention: Nursing activities at this level aim to detect and treat infectious diseases early to prevent complications and further transmission. Activities include conducting screenings, performing diagnostic tests, initiating early treatment, and contact tracing to identify individuals at risk of infection.
– Tertiary Prevention: Nurses engage in activities to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and manage their consequences. This involves providing supportive care, patient education, adherence support for medication regimens, infection control management, and promoting rehabilitation.
4. An example of a communicable and/or infectious disease that reemerged after being believed to be eradicated is pertussis (whooping cough). Pertussis was once considered nearly eradicated in many countries due to widespread vaccination programs. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in reported cases worldwide. This reemergence can be attributed to factors such as waning immunity, increased travel, changes in bacterial strains, and vaccine hesitancy. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination rates and implementing effective control strategies to prevent the spread of diseases that were thought to be under control.
Overall, understanding the principles of communicable and infectious diseases, setting goals for prevention and control, and implementing appropriate nursing activities are crucial in the fight against these diseases. Continuous vigilance, education, vaccination efforts, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential in minimizing the impact of outbreaks and protecting public health.